CIDC References

Some pointers to additional information about the Climatology Interdisciplinary Data Collection (CIDC). Please click the back button of the browser to return to your previous page.

  1. Barkstrom, B. R., E. Harrison, G. Smith, R. Green, J. Kibler, R. Cess, and the ERBE Science Team, 1989. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) archival and April 1985 results, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 70:1254-1262.

  2. Barry, R. G. 1984. Possible carbon dioxide-induced warming effects on the cryosphere. In: Climate Changes on a Yearly to Millennial Basis. eds. N. A. Morner and W. Karlen, pp. 571 to 604. Hingham:D. Reidel.

  3. Barry, R. G. 1985. Snow cover, sea ice, and permafrost. In: Glaciers, Ice Sheets, and Sea Level: Effect of a CO2-Induced Climatic Change, pp. 241 to 247. Washington: Dept. of Energy.

  4. Bishop, J. K. B., and W. B. Rossow, 1991: Spatial and temporal variability of global surface solar irradiance, J. Geophys. Res., 96:16,839-16,858.

  5. Bishop, J. K. B., J. McLaren, Z. Garraffo, and W. B. Rossow, 1994: Documentation and description of surface solar irradiance datasets produced for SeaWiFS, A draft document dated (10/30/94), 23 pages, available on the internet at:

  6. Bottomley, M., C. K. Folland, J. Jsiung, R. E. Newell, and D. E. Parker, 1990: Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas (GOSTA), 20 + iv pp. and 313 plates, Joint Meteorol. Off./Mass. Inst. of Technol. Proj., supported by U. S. Dep. of Energy, U. S. Nat. Sci. Found., and U. S. Off. of Nav. Res., funded by UK Depts. of Energy and Environment, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

  7. Bony, S., Y. Sud, K. M. Lau, J. Susskind, and S. Saha, 1997: Comparison and satellite assessment of NASA/DAO and NCEP-NCAR Reanalyses over tropical ocean: Atmospheric hydrology and radiation, J. Climate, 10:1441-1462.

  8. Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally, 1997: Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations from Multichannel Passive-Microwave Satellite Data Sets: October 1978-September 1995. User's Guide. NASA TM 104647, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, pp17.

  9. Cess, R. D., G. L. Potter, J. P. Blancet, G. J. Boer, A. D. Del Genio, M. Deque, V Dymnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J. Ghan, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, Z.- X. Li, X.-Z Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, L. Rikus, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinir, A Slingo, A. P. Skolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai, and M.-H Zhang, 1990: Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 Atmospheric General Circulation Models., J. Geophys. Res., 95:16601-16615.

  10. Cess, R. D., M.-H. Zhang, G. L. Potter, H. W. Barker, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. Esch, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, W. J. Ingram, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, Z.-X. Li, X.-Z. Liang, J.-F. Mahfouf, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J.-J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J.-F Royer, A. P. Sokolov, P. V. Sporyshev, K. E. Taylor, W.-C. Wang, and R. T. Wetherald, 1993: Uncertainties in carbon dioxide radiative forcing in atmospheric general circulation models, Science, 262:1252-1255.

  11. Cess, R. C., M. H. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E.G. Dutton, B. W. Forgan, D. P. Garber, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, E. F. Harrison, X. Jing, J. R. Kiehl, C. N. Long, J.-j. Morcrette, G. L. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. H. Whitlock, D. F. Young, and Y. Zhou, 1995: Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models, Science, 267:496-499.


    There has been a long history of unexplained anomalous absorption of solar radiation by clouds. Collocated satellite and surface measurements of solar radiation at five geographically diverse locations showed significant solar absorption by clouds, resulting in about 25 W/m2 more global-mean absorption by the cloudy atmosphere than predicted by theoretical models. It has often been suggested that tropospheric aerosols could increase cloud absorption. But these aerosols are temporally and spatially heterogeneous, whereas the observed cloud absorption is remarkably invariant with respect to season and location. Although its physical cause is unknown, enhanced cloud absorption substantially alters our understanding of the atmosphere's energy budget.

  12. Chang, A. T. C., P. Gloersen, T. Schmugge, T. T. Wilheit, and H. J. Zwally. 1976. Microwave emission from snow and glacier ice. J. Glaciol. 16:23.

  13. Chang, A. T. C., J. L. l, D. K. Hall, A. Rango, and B. K. Hartline. 1982a. Snow water equivalent estimation by microwave radiometry. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 5:259-267.

  14. Chang, H. D. 1982b. User's Guide for Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Instrument First-Year Antenna Temperature Data Set. Washington: SASC.

  15. Chang, A. T. C., J. L. Foster, and D. K. Hall. 1987. Nimbus-07 SMMR derived global snow cover parameters. Ann. Glaciol. 9:39-44.

  16. Chang, A. T. C., J. L. Foster, and D. K. Hall. 1990. Satellite estimates of Northern Hemisphere snow volume. Remote Sensing Letters, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 11:1:167-172.

  17. Chang, A. T. C., J. L. Foster, D. K. Hall, H. W. Powell, and Y.L. Chien. 1992. Nimbus-7 SMMR Derived Global Snow Depth Data Set. The Pilot Land Data System. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Greenbelt, MD.

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  20. Dorman, J.L., and Sellers, P.J., 1989. A Global climatology of albedo, roughness length and stomatal resistance for atmospheric general circulation models as represented by the simple biosphere model (SiB). Journal of Applied Meteorology, 28:833-855.

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  22. Feldman, G., N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, and G. Podesta, 1989. Ocean Colour: Availability of the global dataset, EOS, Trans. AGU , 70:634.

  23. Foster, J. L., D. K. Hall, A. T. C. Chang, and A. Rango. 1984. An overview of passive microwave snow research and results. Rev. Geophys. 22:195-208.

  24. Foster, J. L. 1989. The significance of the data of snow disappearance on the Arctic tundra as a possible indicator of climate change. Arctic and Alpine Res. 21:1:60-70.

  25. Gupta, S. K., A. C. Wilber, W. L. Darnell, and J. T. Suttles, 1993a: Longwave surface radiation over the globe from satellite data: An error analysis, Int. J. Remote Sens., 14:95-114.

  26. Hall, D. K., J. L. Foster, and A. T. C. Chang. 1982. Measurement and modelling of microwave emission from forested snowfields in Michigan. Nordic Hydrology, 13:129-138.

  27. Hall, D. K., and J. Martinec. 1985. Remote Sensing of Ice and Snow. 189 pp. London:Chapman & Hall.

  28. Hall, D. K. 1988. Assessment of polar climate change using satellite technology. Review of Geophysics. 6:21:26-39.

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  31. Hinton, B. B. , W. S. Olson, D. W. Martin and B. Auvine, 1992: A passive microwave algorithm for tropical oceanic rainfall, J. Appl. Meteorol., 31:1379-1395.

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  33. Hoyt, D. V., H. L. Kyle, J. R. Hickey, and R. H. Maschhoff, 1992. The Nimbus-7 total solar irradiance: A new algorithm for its derivation, J. Geophys. Res., 97:51-63.

  34. Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, P. Arkin, A. Chang., R. Ferraro, A. Gruber, J. Janowiak, A. McNab, B. Rudolf, and U. Schneider, 1997: The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) combined precipitation dataset, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78:5-20.

  35. Jacobowitz, H., H. Soule, L.H. Kyle, House F.B. 1984. The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Experiment: An Overview. J. Geophys. Res., 89(D4):993-1011.

  36. James, M. E. and S. N. V. Kalluri, 1994. The Pathfinder AVHRR land data set: An improved coarse resolution data set for terrestrial monitoring. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Special Issue on Global Data Sets. 15(17):3347-3363.

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  38. Jones, P. D., S. C. B. Raper, and T. M. L. Wigley, 1986b: Southern Hemisphere surface air temperature variations, 1851-1984, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 25:1213-1230.

  39. Jones, P. D., S. C. B. Raper, C. M. Goodess, B. S. G. Cherry and T. M. L. Wigley, 1986c: A gridpoint surface air temperature data set for the southern hemisphere, U. S. Dept. of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division, Washington, DC, Technical report, TR027, 73pp.

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  41. Jones, P. D., T. M. L. Wigley, and G. Farmer, 1991: Marine and land temperature data sets: a comparison and a look at recent trends, in, Greenhouse-Gas-induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations, M. E. Schlesinger, Ed., Elsevier Scientific Publishers, New York, 153-172.

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  46. Los, S.O., C.O. Justice, C.J. Tucker, 1994. A global 1° x 1° NDVI data set for climate studies derived from the GIMMS continental NDVI data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 15(17):3493- 3518.

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  50. Minnis, P. and Harrison, E. F. 1984b. Diurnal Variability of regional Cloud and Clear-Sky Radiative Parameters Derived From GOES Data. Part II: November 1978 Cloud Distributions. J. Climate & Appl. Meteorol., 23(7):1012-1031.

  51. Minnis, P. and Harrison, E. F. 1984c. Diurnal Variability of regional Cloud and Clear-Sky Radiative Parameters Derived From GOES Data. Part III: November 1978 Radiative Parameters. J. Climate & Appl. Meteorol., 23(7):1032-1051.

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  54. Pilewskie, P., and F. P. J. Valero, 1995: Direct observations of excess solar absorption by clouds, Science, 267:1626-1629.


    Aircraft measurements of solar flux in the cloudy tropical atmosphere reveal that solar absorption by clouds is anomalously large when compared to theoretical estimates. The ratio of cloud forcing at an altitude of 20 kilometres to that at the surface is 1.58 rather than 1.0, as predicted by models. These results were derived from a cloud radiation experiment in which identical instrumentation was deployed on co-ordinated stacked aircraft. These findings indicate a significant difference between measurements and theory and imply that the interaction between clouds and solar radiation is poorly understood.

  55. Pinker, R. T., I. Laszlo, C. H. Whitlock, and T. P. Charlock, 1995: Radiative flux opens new window on climate research, EOS, 76:145.

  56. Ramanathan, V., B. Subasilar, G. J. Zhang, W. Conant, R. D. Cess, J. T. Kiehl, H. Grassl, and L. Shi, 1995: Warm pool heat budget and shortwave cloud forcing: a missing physics?, Science, 267:499-503.


    Ship observations and ocean models indicate that heat export from the mixed layer of the western Pacific warm pool is small (<20 W/m2). This value was used to deduce the effect of clouds on the net solar radiation at the sea surface. The inferred magnitude of this shortwave cloud forcing was large (~-100 W/m2) and exceeded its observed value at TOA by a factor of about 1.5. This result implies that clouds (at least over the warm pool) reduce net solar radiation at the sea surface not only by reflecting a significant amount back to space, but also by trapping a large amount in the cloudy atmosphere, an inference that is at variance with most model results. The excess cloud absorption, if confirmed, has many climatic implications, including a significant reduction in the required tropics to extratropics heat transport in the oceans.

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