ECMWF references

Analysis system

Bengtsson L., Kanamitsu M., Kallberg P. and Uppala. S., 1982: FGGE 4- dimensional data assimilation at ECMWF. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 63, 29- 43.

Hollingsworth A., Lönnberg P., 1986: The statistical structure of short- range forecast errors as determined from radiosonde data. Part I: The wind field.

Hollingsworth A., Shaw D.B., Lönnberg P., Illari L., Arpe K. and Simmons A.J., 1986: Monitoring of observation and analysis quality by a data assimilation system. Mon.Wea.Rev., 114, 5, 861-879.

Lönnberg P., Hollingsworth A., 1986: The statistical structure of short- range forecast errors as determined from radiosonde data. Part II: The covariance of heights and wind errors, TELLUS 38A, 137-161.

Lorenc A.C., 1981: A global three-dimensional multivariate statistical interpretation scheme. Mon.Wea.Rev., 109, 701-721.

Shaw D.B., Lönnberg P., Hollingsworth A. and Undén P., 1987: Data assimilation: The 1984/85 revision of the ECMWF mass and wind analysis. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 113, 533-566.

Undén P., 1989: Tropical data assimilation and analysis of divergence. Mon.Wea.Rev., 117, 2495-2517.

Initialisation system

Machenhauer B., 1977: On the dynamics of gravity oscillations in a shallow water model, with application to normal mode initialization. Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 50, 259-271.

Temperton C., Williamson D.L., 1981: Normal mode initialisation for a multivariate grid-point model: Part I linear aspects. Mon.Wea.Rev., 109, 720;743.

Temperton C., 1988: Implicit normal mode initialization. Mon.Wea.Rev., 116, 1013-1031.

Wergen W., 1988: The diabatic ECMWF normal mode initialisation scheme. Beitr. Phys. Atmosph. 61, 274-304.

Williamson D.L., Temperton C., 1981: Normal mode initialisation for a multivariate grid-point model: Part II nonlinear aspects. Mon.Wea.Rev., 109, 744-757.

Geleyn J.F., Hollingsworth A., 1979: An economical analytical method for the computation of the interaction between scattering and line absorption of radiation. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 52, 1-16.

Geleyn J.F., Preuss H.J., 1983: A new data set of satellite-derived surface albedo values for operational use at ECMWF. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioclim., Ser. A, 32, 353-359.

Geleyn J.F., 1988: Interpolation of wind temperature and humidity values from model levels to the height of measurements. Tellus, 40A, 347-351.

Hortal M., Simons A., 1991: Use of reduced Gaussian grids in spectral models. Mon.Wea.Rev., 119, 1057-1074.

Janssen P., Beljaars A., Simmons A., Viterbo P., 1992: On the determination of the surface stress in an atmospheric model. Mon.Wea.Rev., in print.

Jarraud M., Simmons A., Kanamitsu M., 1988: Sensitivity of medium-range weather forecasts to the use of an envelope orography. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 114, 989-1025.

Louis J.-F., 1979: A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere. Boundary-layer Meteorol., 17, 187-202.

Miller M., Beljaars A., Palmer T., 1992: The sensitivity of the ECMWF model to the parametrization of evaporation from the tropical oceans. J. of Climate, 5, 418-434.

Miller M., Palmer T., Swinbank R., 1989: Orographic gravity-wave drag: its parametrization and influence in general circulation and numerical weather prediction model. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 40, 84-109.

Morcrette J.-J., 1991: Radiation and cloud radiative properties in the European Centre For Medium-Range Weather Forecasts forecasting system. Journal of Geoph. Res., 96, 9121-9132.

Morcrette J.-J., 1990: Impact of changes to the radiative transfer parametrization plus cloud optical properties in the ECMWF model. Mon.Wea.Rev., 118, 847-873.

Simons A.J., Burridge D.M., Jarraud M., Girard C., Wergen W., 1989: The ECMWF medium-range prediction models. Development of the numerical formulations and the impact of increased resolution. Meteor.Atmos.Phys., 40, 28-60.

Simmons A., Dent D., 1989: The ECMWF multi-tasking weather prediction model. Computer Physics Reports, 11, 165-194.

Slingo J.J., 1987: The development and verification of a cloud prediction scheme for the ECMWF model. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 213, 899-927.

Tiedtke M., 1984: The effect of penetrative cumulus convection on the large scale flow in the general circulation model. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 57, 216- 239.

Tiedtke M., 1989: A comprehensive massflux scheme for cumulus parametrization in large-scale models. Mon.Wea.Rev., 117, 1779-1800.


Weaver et al, 1993: Thermodynamic balance of three-dimensional stratospheric winds derived from a data assimilation procedure. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 2987-2993.